This mod requires Brave New World.
The Tupi people were one of the main ethnic groups of Brazilian indigenous people. Scholars believe they first settled in the Amazon rainforest, but 2,900 years ago they started to spread southward and gradually occupied the Atlantic coast.
The Tupi people inhabited almost all of Brazil's coast when the Portuguese first arrived there. In 1500, their population was estimated at 1 million people, nearly equal to the population of Portugal at the time. They were divided into tribes, each tribe numbering from 300 to 2,000 people. Some examples of these tribes are: Tupiniquim, Tupinambá, Potiguara, Tabajara, Caetés, Temiminó, Tamoios. The Tupi utilised agriculture and therefore satisfied a Neolithic condition. They grew cassava, corn, sweet potatoes, beans, peanuts, tobacco, squash, cotton, and many others. There was not a unified Tupi identity despite the fact that they were a single ethnic group that spoke a common language.
From the 16th century onward the Tupi, like other natives from the region, were assimilated, enslaved, or simply exterminated by Portuguese settlers and Bandeirantes (colonial Brazil scouts), nearly leading to their complete annihilation, with the exception of a few isolated communities. The remnants of these tribes are today confined to Indian reservations or acculturated to some degree into the dominant society.
The Tupi were divided into several tribes which were constantly engaged in war with one another. In these wars the Tupi normally tried to capture their enemies to later kill them in cannibalistic rituals. The warriors captured from other Tupí tribes were eaten as they believed they were absorbing their strength, thus in fear of absorbing weakness, they only sacrificed warriors perceived to be strong and brave. For the Tupí warriors, even when prisoners, it was a great honor to die valiantly during battle or to display courage during the festivities leading to his sacrifice. The Tupí have also been documented to eat the remains of dead relatives as a form of honoring them.
The practice of cannibalism among the Tupí was made famous in Europe by Hans Staden, a German soldier and mariner who was captured by the Tupí in 1552. In his account published in 1557, he tells that the Tupí carried him to their village where he claimed he was to be devoured at the next festivity. There, he allegedly won the friendship of a powerful chief, whom he cured of a disease, and his life was spared.
Cannibalistic rituals amongst Tupí and other tribes in Brazil decreased steadily after European contact and religious intervention. When Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish conquistador arrived in Santa Catarina in 1541, for example, he attempted to ban cannibalistic practices in the name of the King of Spain.
Due to the fact that our understanding of Tupí cannibalism relies solely on primary source accounts of primarily European writers, the very existence of cannibalism is widely disputed in academia. William Arens seeks to discredit Staden's and other writers' accounts of cannibalism in his book The Man-Eating Myth: Anthropology and Anthropophagy, where he claims that when concerning the Tupinambá, “rather than dealing with an instance of serial documentation of cannibalism, we are more likely confronting only one source of dubious testimony which has been incorporated almost verbatim into the written reports of others claiming to be eyewitnesses.
Although the Tupi population was largely exterminated because of slavery or because of European diseases to which they had no resistance, a large population of maternal Tupi ancestry occupied much of Brazilian territory, taking the ancient traditions to several points of the country. Darcy Ribeiro wrote that the features of the first Brazilians were much more Tupi than Portuguese, and even the language that they spoke was a Tupi-based language, named Nheengatu or Língua Geral, a lingua franca in Brazil until the 18th century. The region of São Paulo was the biggest in the proliferation of Mamelucos, who in the 17th century under the name of Bandeirantes, spread throughout Brazilian territory, from the Amazon rainforest to the extreme South. They were responsible for the major expansion of the Iberian culture in the interior of Brazil. They acculturated the Indian tribes who lived isolated, and took the language of the colonizer, which was not Portuguese yet, but Nheengatu itself, to the most inhospitable corners of the colony. Interestingly, Nheengatu is still spoken in certain regions of the Amazon, although the Tupi-speaking Indians did not live there. The Nheengatu language, as in other regions of the country, was introduced there by Bandeirantes from São Paulo in the 17th century. The way of life of the Old Paulistas could almost be confused with the Indians. Within the family, only Nheengatu was spoken. Agriculture, hunting, fishing and gathering of fruits were also based on Indian traditions. What differentiated the Tupi from the Old Paulistas was the use of clothes, salt, metal tools, weapons and other European items.
Cunhambebe (more correctly pronounced Quonambec in his native Tupi language) was an aboriginal Indian chieftain of the Tupinambá tribe, which dominated the region between present-day Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro) and Bertioga (São Paulo). He lived in a village in Iperoig (near present-day Ubatuba).
Cunhambebe was also the main force and elected chief of the Tamoyo Confederation, a military alliance between the sea coast tribes against the Portuguese colonists. The Tamoyo Confederation waged war against the Portuguese until the Peace of Iperoig in 1567. They also fought the Portuguese forces in alliance with the French invaders commanded by Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon (1510–1571), a Huguenot admiral, in the historical episode which became known as the France Antarctique.
According to the description of French priest André de Thevet, the German soldier of fortune and sailor Hans Staden (1525–1579) was a prisoner of Cunhambebe's father (who had the same name) between 1554 and 1557. The Tupinambá were fierce warriors and cannibals, as described by Hans Staden, who narrowly escaped several times of being killed and eaten by Cunhambebe's Indians.
The war waged by the Tamoyo Confederation was strongly affecting the Portuguese colonisation efforts, so the two Portuguese Jesuit priests who had founded São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga (which became the present-day megalopolis of São Paulo), Manoel da Nóbrega (1517–1570) and José de Anchieta (1534–1597) started a peace mission by doing a high risk visit to Cunhambebe's village. Although they were received with mistrust, Anchieta spoke Tupi language very well and they were spared death.
Eventually, Anchieta succeeded in negotiating a peace treaty, which was respected by Cunhambebe and the Tupinambás. The peace treaty ended when an attack force led by Portuguese knight D. Estácio de Sá (1520–1567) tried to expel the French invaders. In this occasion, the Tamoyo tribes came to help the Frenchmen, particularly because they felt betrayed by the Portuguese, and also because the Temimino tribes, their traditional and bitter enemies, fought on the side of the Portuguese.
Cunhambebe died of bubonic plague just after the arrival of Villegaigon's fleet to the Guanabara Bay in Rio de Janeiro, so he took no part in the following events which eventually led to the almost complete destruction of the Tamoyos towards the end of the 16th century.
Dawn of Man
Oh Great Cunhambebe of the Tupinamba tribe, unifier of the Tupi people, you led your people in the great Tamoyo Confederation against the Portuguese colonists.
Your people settled in the Amazon Rainforest, and managed to become one of the main civilizations in the area. Sharing many cultural traditions, the Tupi managed to generate many different tribes: the Tupiniquim, the Tupinamba, the Potiguara, the Tabajara, the Caetes, the Temimino, the Tamoios, and many others, each with their own unique language. Your people unified in the fight against the European colonization. You also managed to sign an alliance with France, making it possible to fight off the enemies of your lands.
Oh Great Chief of the Tamoyo, your people still wander the Amazon, still remembering your bravery and cunning in diplomacy. Will you once again lead them together? Will you build a Civilization that can stand the test of time?
Introduction: "Welcome stranger! Come and join us at our celebrations in the Maloca"
Introduction: "Greetings traveller; rest while I get something to eat."
Introduction: "I'm Cunhambebe, of the Tupinamba; welcome to our lands."
Defeat: "Not even with our confederation, did we manage to defeat you..."
The Tupi (Cunhambebe)
|The Tamoyo Confederation |
|Uybabaeté (Composite Bowman)|
The Tupi are a rather versatile Civ which thrives in the Jungle. You're likely to spawn there, but fortunately the Tupi receive the Maloca UI which provides the Production you'd often find lacking. Aim to fulfill We Love the King Day requests to make them produce Food and Culture too. The Uyababaeté replaces the Composite Bow - already a good sign - and comes with Indirect Fire, more than making up for its slight reduction in defensive Strength by allowing easier rushes of neighbours in rough terrain. Your UA makes your Allied City-States gift Units, so you should invest in Patronage. If you find yourself with too many Units, simply donate them for extra Influence. The Tupi can hence find themselves headed towards Diplomatic or Domination Victories.
|Peace Theme||War Theme|
|"Sudamerica Salvaje" from Andes to Amazon Soundtrack||"Asuncion" by Ennio Morricone|
Community Balance Patch
Unique Cultural Influence
Full Credits List
|Latest Version:||v 1|
|Last Updated:||30 June 2014|
- Leugi: Author
- Tomatekh: UA help
- UberGeneral: suggestions
- Reedstilt: suggestions
- Hoop_Thrower: suggestions
- Homusubi: suggestions
- LastSword: suggestions
Notes and References
|Gran Colombia • Chile • Bolivia • Argentina • Perú • Paraguay • Cuba • Haiti • Rio dela Plata|
|Muisca • Aymara • Mapuche • Tiwanaku • Tupi|
|Israel • Philistines|