|The Papal States|
The Papal States led by Gregory XIII is a custom civilisation created by LastSword, with contributions from hokath, Janboruta and Nutty.
This mod requires Gods and Kings & Brave New World. It replaces the City-State of Vatican City with Touba.
The Pope has not always been a purely spiritual figure. The Papal States were territories in the Italian Peninsula under the sovereign direct rule of the pope, from the 700s until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from roughly the eighth century until the Italian Peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. At their zenith, they covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio (which includes most of Rome), Marche, Umbria and Romagna, as well as portions of Emilia. These holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy. After 1861 the Papal States, reduced to Lazio, continued to exist until 1870. Between 1870 and 1929 the Pope had no physical territory at all. Eventually Italian fascist leader Benito Mussolini solved the crisis between modern Italy and the Vatican, and in 1929 the Vatican City State was founded as the smallest of all sovereign nations.
Ugo Boncompagni was born the son of Cristoforo Boncompagni (10 July 1470 – 1546) and of his wife Angela Marescalchi in Bologna, where he studied law and graduated in 1530. He later taught jurisprudence for some years, and his students included notable figures such as Cardinals Alexander Farnese, Reginald Pole and Charles Borromeo. He had an illegitimate son after an affair with Maddalena Fulchini, Ugo Boncompagni, but before he took holy orders.
At the age of thirty-six he was summoned to Rome by Pope Paul III (1534–1549), under whom he held successive appointments as first judge of the capital, abbreviator, and vice-chancellor of the Campagna. Pope Paul IV (1555–1559) attached him as datarius to the suite of Cardinal Carlo Carafa, Pope Pius IV (1559–1565) made him Cardinal-Priest of San Sisto Vecchio and sent him to the Council of Trent.
He also served as a legate to Philip II of Spain (1556–1598), being sent by the Pope to investigate the Cardinal of Toledo. It was here that he formed a lasting and close relationship with the Spanish King, which was to become very important in his foreign policy as Pope.
Upon the death of Pope Pius V (1566–1572), the conclave chose Cardinal Boncompagni, who assumed the name of Gregory XIII in homage to the great reforming Pope, Gregory I (590–604), surnamed the Great. It was a very brief conclave, lasting less than 24 hours. Many historians have attributed this to the influence and backing of the Spanish King. Gregory XIII's character seemed to be perfect for the needs of the church at the time. Unlike some of his predecessors, he was to lead a faultless personal life, becoming a model for his simplicity of life. Additionally, his legal brilliance and management abilities meant that he was able to respond and deal with major problems quickly and decisively, although not always successfully.
Once in the chair of Saint Peter, Gregory XIII's rather worldly concerns became secondary and he dedicated himself to reform of the Catholic Church. He committed himself to putting into practice the recommendations of the Council of Trent. He allowed no exceptions for cardinals to the rule that bishops must take up residence in their sees, and designated a committee to update the Index of Forbidden Books. He was the patron of a new and greatly improved edition of the Corpus juris canonici. In a time of considerable centralisation of power, Gregory XIII abolished the Cardinals Consistories, replacing them with Colleges, and appointing specific tasks for these colleges to work on. He was renowned for having a fierce independence; some confidants noted that he neither welcomed interventions nor sought advice. The power of the papacy increased under him, whereas the influence and power of the cardinals substantially decreased.
The Roman College of the Jesuits grew substantially under his patronage, and became the most important centre of learning in Europe for a time, known as the University of the Nations. It is now named the Pontifical Gregorian University. Pope Gregory XIII also founded numerous seminaries for training priests, beginning with the German College at Rome, and put them in the charge of the Jesuits.
In 1575 he gave official status to the Congregation of the Oratory, a community of priests without vows, dedicated to prayer and preaching (founded by Saint Filippo Neri). In 1580 he commissioned artists, including Ignazio Danti, to complete works to decorate the Vatican and commissioned The Gallery of Maps.
Pope Gregory XIII is best known for his commissioning of the calendar after being initially authored by the Calabrian doctor/astronomer Aloysius Lilius and with the aid of Jesuit priest/astronomer Christopher Clavius who made the final modifications. The reason for the reform was that the average length of the year in the Julian calendar was too long – it treated each year as 365 days, 6 hours in length, whereas calculations showed that the actual mean length of a year is slightly less (365 days, 5 hours and 49 minutes) As a result, the date of the actual vernal equinox had slowly (over the course of 13 centuries) slipped to 10 March, while the computus (calculation) of the date of Easter still followed the traditional date of 21 March.
Though he expressed the conventional fears of the danger from the Turks, Gregory XIII's attentions were more consistently directed to the dangers from the Protestants. He also encouraged the plans of Philip II to dethrone Elizabeth I of England (reigned from 1558–1603), thus helping to develop an atmosphere of subversion and imminent danger among English Protestants, who looked on any Roman Catholic as a potential traitor.
In 1580 he was persuaded by English Jesuits to moderate or suspend the Bull Regnans in Excelsis (1570) which had excommunicated Queen Elizabeth I of England. Catholics were advised to obey the queen outwardly in all civil matters, until such time as a suitable opportunity presented itself for her overthrow.
In Rome Gregory XIII built the magnificent Gregorian chapel in the Basilica of St. Peter, and extended the Quirinal Palace in 1580. He also turned the Baths of Diocletian into a granary in 1575.
He appointed his illegitimate son Giacomo, born to his mistress at Bologna before his papacy, castellan of Sant'Angelo and Gonfalonier of the Church; Venice, anxious to please, enrolled him among its nobles. Philip II of Spain appointed him general in his army. Gregory also helped his son to become a powerful feudatary through the acquisition of the Duchy of Sora, on the border between the Papal States and the Kingdom of Naples.
In order to raise funds for these and similar objects, he confiscated a large proportion of the houses and properties throughout the states of the Church. This measure enriched his treasury for a time, but alienated a great body of the nobility and gentry, revived old factions, and created new ones. Gregory XIII died on 10 April 1585.
Dawn of Man
Oh, holy pope Gregory XIII, the successor of Pius V, the faithful are gathered to hear your words of wisdom. Your Holiness reformed the church, reducing the influence and power of the inner enemies, the cardinals, and increasing power of the Papacy to create strong leadership for all Catholicism. During your pontificate, the Papal States fostered cultural patronages and strengthened many ecclesiastical and diplomatic envoys, spreading the Word of the Lord as far as Japan and the Philippines! Not only Art, but also Science is thankful for your input! Your Holiness founded new colleges of learning, and the calendar which bears your name remaining world-wide accepted to this day.
Most Pious and Holy Father! Even though the church brought the light of civilizaton to the darkest reaches of man, its merits have become forgotten, unity divided and power redundant. Those Papal States have vanished from the maps of the world! Great pope, your pontificate begins once more. Lost sheep are in need of a shepherd! Can you bear this burden? Can you earn forgiveness for this world? Can you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?
Introduction: "God be with you, traveller. The wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. Believe in me and you shall not perish. Promise."
Introduction: "Greetings. I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me."
Defeat: "I see His heaven before me. He speaks to me! "Come to me," he says, "you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest.""
Defeat: "I have told you many things, so that you may have peace. In this world you will have trouble. But take heart! For I have overcome the world!"
Papal States (Gregory XIII)
|Swiss Guard (Pikeman)|
|Peace Theme||War Theme|
|"Augustus Caesar Peace Theme" from the soundtrack of Civilization V.||"Augustus Caesar War Theme" from the soundtrack of Civilization V.|
Community Balance Patch
Unique Cultural Influence
Wish for the World
Full Credits List
|Latest Version:||BNW v. 27|
|Last Updated:||23 April 2015|
- hokath: Text.
- Janboruta: Swiss Guard icon.
- Nutty: Swiss Guard model.
- LastSword: All else.