|Plurinational State of Bolivia|
|Map by Leugi|
|Manuel Isidoro Belzu|
This mod requires Brave New World or Gods and Kings.
Bolivia, officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. It is bordered by Brazil to the north and east, Paraguay and Argentina to the south, Chile to the southwest, and Peru to the west.
Prior to Spanish colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was a part of the Inca Empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent tribes. Spanish conquistadors arriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. During most of the Spanish colonial period, Bolivia was known as Upper Peru and administered by the Royal Court of Charcas. After the first call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar, on 6 August 1825. Bolivia has since endured periods of political and economic instability, including the loss of various peripheral territories to its neighbors, such as Acre, parts of the Gran Chaco and its coast. Modern Bolivia is a democratic republic that is divided into nine departments. Its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country, with a medium ranking in the Human Development Index and a poverty level of 53 percent. Its main economic activities include agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and manufacturing goods such as textiles, clothing, refined metals, and refined petroleum. Bolivia is very wealthy in minerals, especially tin.
The Bolivian population, estimated at 10 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Mestizos, Europeans, Asians and Africans. The main language spoken is Spanish, although the Guarani, Aymara and Quechua languages are also common, and all four, as well as 34 other indigenous languages, are official. Bolivia's diversity has contributed greatly to its rich art, cuisine, literature, and music.
Manuel Isidoro Belzu Humerez (14 April 1808 – 23 March 1865) was president of Bolivia from 1848 to 1855. Born in La Paz, Bolivia to humble mestizo parents, Belzu was educated by Franciscan friars. He joined the wars of independence in his youth, fighting under Andres de Santa Cruz at Zepita (1823) when he was 17. After serving as an aide to Agustin Gamarra, he left the Peruvian army when the latter entered Bolivia in 1828. Assigned as garrison commander to Tarija, Belzu married "up" in class by wedding a beautiful and intellectual Argentine lady, Juana Manuela Gorriti, who resided there with her family.
Belzu fought in the battles of the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy, during which he was promoted to the post of Army commander by President Jose Ballivian. He had fought bravely under his orders at the Battle of Ingavi (1841).
Originally a close friend and supporter of President Ballivian, Belzu turned against him about 1845. Ballivian had reportedly attempted to seduce Belzu's wife in his own Oruro home. Surprising the President there, Belzu shot at him and barely missed. The event sealed an undying enmity between the two that would never abate. Political ambitions—typical of upper-level Bolivian military officers at the time—may have played a role in addition to the personal reasons. Belzu decided at that point to try to topple the "Hero of Ingavi" from the presidency. Withdrawing to the countryside (orders for his arrest for the attempted murder of the President had been issued), Belzu never ceased to conspire against his former friend.
Belzu's political stance became more populist as he embraced his mestizo heritage, railed against the power of the "white" oligarchy, and vowed to advance the cause of the poor and the Indian should he come to the presidency. In his travels as a fugitive, Belzu had seen the deplorable conditions under which most of the population lived, with scarcely any improvements or public works by the government. His position established a strong base of support among the peasants, who came to know him as "Tata (Father, or Protector) Belzu."
Another, more conventional anti-Ballivian insurgent group was commanded by the ambitious former president, Jose Miguel de Velasco. As a warlord, he led his army in competition with that of Belzu in the race to topple the President. The embattled Ballivian found the country ungovernable, and in December 1847 he fled to exile abroad. He left the government in the hands of General Eusebio Guilarte, head of the Council of State and legally second-in-line to the presidency.
At this point Belzu made a pact with Velasco to support the latter's accession to the Presidency while Belzu took the position of Minister of War. Belzu quickly betrayed Velasco and had his troops proclaim him as President. A bloody counter-coup by General Velasco had to be put down, with Belzu's commanding the troops that crushed Velasco's. By the end of the year, Belzu had destroyed the opposition (both Ballivian and Velasco) and consolidated his power as the sole de facto president of Bolivia.
As promised, Belzu led his government in undertaking populist measures, but he also wanted to maintain strong control over power. Most of Belzu's reforms were cosmetic, although his political statements were more liberal than any president's had been since Sucre. capitalizing on his relative popularity, Belzu managed to legitimize his rule by becoming democratically elected. He faced constant opposition and rebellions from the pro-Ballivian camp, from ambitious fellow military warlords, and later, from the pro-Linares faction that coalesced as a united front against military caudillism. Belzu's protectionist economic policies were opposed by Great Britain and the United States, and isolated Bolivia from the global economy and ongoing intellectual trends. Although popular with the masses due to his statist policies (contrary to prevailing notions), Belzu never lacked enemies among the powerful, whose interests he threatened. He barely survived a well-planned assassination attempt in Sucre, carried out by Agustin Morales, then an obscure mid-ranking officer but one who would later become president.
By the early 1850s, Belzu dispensed with any pretense of democratic norms and ruled despotically. Following a prolonged, 7-year rule, in 1855 a weary Belzu decided to "retire". He ran elections in which he sponsored the candidacy of his loyal son-in-law, General Jorge Cordova. The latter was duly elected over Jose Maria Linares (perhaps with the help of at least some degree of official fraud), and for two years ruled Bolivia as a virtual proxy of the powerful former president. During this time, Belzu served as his country's Plenipotentiary in Europe.
Cordova was overthrown in an 1857 coup d'etat. Still acting as Belzu's proxy, he was murdered after being caught plotting against President Jose Maria de Acha in 1862. This galvanized Belzu despite his age, who returned to Bolivia and raised an army, with the hope of returning to the presidency and avenging the death of his son-in-law. Never flagging in his campaign, Belzu came close to becoming President for a second time in 1864 when Acha finally fled Bolivia. Another general, Mariano Melgarejo, preceded Belzu's forces to the government palace of La Paz, by then the country's largest city and the defacto seat of government. Belzu tried to besiege the city, but Melgarejo, also a mestizo, became as popular as the "Tata."
Purportedly to avoid bloodshed, Melgarejo sent an emissary to Belzu, and invited him to the Government Palace to make a pact to share power in his administration. He reportedly offered to cede power to the former President in exchange for some concessions. Trusting Melgarejo, Belzu arrived at the Palace and was assassinated in January 1865 on its grounds, presumably at the hands of the new dictator and caudillo.
Dawn of Man
Greetings to you, Manuel Isidoro Belzu. You led the multitudinary Bolivian civilization and were part of the armies that secured the Independency of South America.
Bolivia is a country with deep diversity, both cultural and geographical. This setting, however, led to many clashes between every culture and social class in the land, making Bolivia a land both of revolutions and discrimination. However, it also led to many unions, represented by the religious syncretism and the folklorical festivities.
In your time, you managed to give a blow against the discrimination of the ruling oligarchy, by giving the native people rights they lacked even after. Bolivia still lives in the conflicts of class and racial discrimination, and humble people still have to fight for their rights. But they still call for a leader. Will you grant them the chance to live well together? Will you build a civilization that will stand the test of time?
Introduction: "Welcome to Bolivia!. I'm Manuel Isidoro Belzu, president. I hope we manage to live well together, without any needless conflicts."
Introduction: "So, there's someone else to meet in this world. My name is Manuel Isidoro Belzu. Hopefully you will not be as treacherous as some of the 'oligarchy' here."
Introduction: "Greetings. Welcome to the multitudinary lands of Bolivia. I'm President "Tata" Belzu, and I hope you won't add up to the conflicts here, and rather be a friend of our Nation."
Defeat: "You treacherous oligarchy pig!"
Defeat: "I manifest solemnly that nothing will force to keep a position that is already dull, from every point of view dull. Yes, thousand times dull."
Defeat: "Bolivia has become incapable of any form of government."
A Cultural Civ, oriented around Musicians, Religion and We Love the King Day. Whether you should Found a Religion, or let your Civ become a battleground for different Faiths, is largely a matter of your neighbours and terrain. At any rate, you should be getting a couple extra points of Culture and Great Musician Points more than normal. Pay close attention to Cities' Resource Requests: the bonus Happiness and Tourism may make it worthwhile to accept seemingly unfavourable trades from the AI. You will create Comparsa Folklórica earlier than usual Great Musicians. Without the available Opera Houses, you'll need to spend the early ones on We Love the King Day. Do so in Cities which have unattainable Resource requests. The Colorado is a simple upgrade on the Rifleman of limited use for Bolivia.
|Gods and Kings: +2 Culture per turn from Cities for each foreign Religion present. Holy Sites provide +4 Culture. Holy Sites may be built by Missionaries with half its bonuses.|
|Gods and Kings: Reduces adjacent enemy combat strength by 20%. Ignores terrain cost.|
|Comparsa Folklórica (Great Musician)
|Gods and Kings: Replaces Broadcast Tower. +1 Culture for each resource of Gold, Silver, Gems or Copper.|
|Peace Theme||War Theme|
|"Nevando Está" by Adrián Patiño||"Trilogía India" by Música de Maestros|
Community Balance Patch
Unique Cultural Influence
Wish for the World
Events and Decisions
Switch the Capital
[Capital] is our capital city, but its importance has decreased over the years, especially due to the influence of the ruling oligarchy, a tension between Liberals and Conservationists arises. Changing the capital might renew our progress.
- Player must be Belzu
- Must have a city other than the Capital
- Must be enacted within the Industrial Era.
- May only be enacted once
- Second City receives a free Palace and becomes the Capital.
- Start a "We Love the King" Day in Second City
Nueva Constitución Belzista
President "Tata" Belzu, your government has already established new populist social policies, but there's too much to do. In order to fully increase the rights of the artisans and the indigenous people you must write a new constitution and also create a new flag. This will anger the conservatives however.
- Player must be Belzu
- Must have discovered Civil Service.
- May only be enacted once
- 2 Magistrates
- Receive a turn of Anarchy for every 2 Tradition/Liberty/Piety/Honor Social Policies adopted
Our festive lands celebrate each year the colorful Carnaval de Oruro. Each year thousands of dancers and Comparsas Folklóricas dance through the streets of Oruro, towards the Virgen del Socavón. The UNESCO are deciding to declare it an Intangible Cultural Heritage.
Option 1: Excellent, lets use this chance to improve our diplomacy!
Option 2: Let's improve the quality and infrastructure of our Carnival before.
Option 3: Let's celebrate!
"Tata" Belzu, your populist policies that favour the artisans are generating unrest within the oligarchy. Some of their Caudillos have decided to start a revolt against you. This will rise your popularity within the lower classes, allowing you to enact more policies.
Option 1: We'll not fall before our evil enemies!
The Peruvian Diplomat
The coin we're using within our country has created a conflict with our neighbors. The "Moneda Feble" has entered their lands generating economical problems to them. A Diplomat sent by [Civilization] has come with the mission of dealing with this, so to enhance their own economy.
Option 1: Change your coin.
Option 2: Expel the Diplomat.
For centuries our lands have depended on the European Colonial Powers, and all of our harvests and riches have helped them become powerful empires. Many attempts of rebellions were made, but none of them have been successful. But this can be no more. The Criollo-Mestizos of our lands have managed to achieve enough influence and power within the colonies, and they can now organize together to let us be independent. The situation in Europe is also critical because of constant struggles of power and control over our Patria Grande. The war has begun!
Option 1: ¡Viva la Patria!
- Start a 30 Turn Golden Age
- Receive a Free Libertador Unit
- During this Golden Age, any enemy you kill will generate instant +10 Tourism and conquering or liberating cities generate +100 Tourism.
Note: this event will fire for multiple Latin American 'Patria Grande' Civs.
List of Cities
Full Credits List
|Latest Version:||v 10|
|Last Updated:||2 October 2014|
- Tomatekh: Lua help.
- Sukritact: E&D.
- Leugi: All else.
Notes and References
|Gran Colombia • Chile • Bolivia • Argentina • Perú • Paraguay • Cuba • Haiti • Rio dela Plata|
|Muisca • Aymara • Mapuche • Tiwanaku • Tupi|
|Israel • Philistines|